Demoliendo hoteles

Bitácora. En construcción. Apuntes. Borrador.

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a first draft in five minutes a day?

A bit of inspiration to start writing… suitable for thesis #AcademicWriting


This is a brief post. It’s a brief post about a brief strategy which helps you to get started on writing that feels a bit – well – a bit boring. It’s the five minutes a day strategy.

Boring? Yes … sometimes we all have to write things that don’t excite us. We often try to put off tedious writing. We find it hard to get going. We have no energy. Just thinking about the writing makes us feel tired. And perhaps resentful.

When faced with an enervating writing task, it’s tempting to put it off. To do something that’s more interesting. Or perhaps we could sit and look at the blank screen for a while, then switch to email, or marking, or analyse some data, or one of the many other tasks that need doing.

So the boring bit of writing stays unwritten. It becomes increasingly pressing. But no…

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Coping with teaching during crisis: learning a flexible perspective

In the first days of March, with a new government, summer was ending in Uruguay and we were about to start a new academic year at University of the Republic (Udelar), the major public university of the country.

But on March 13 the first four cases of COVID19 were reported. The government declared Health Crisis: classes were canceled throughout the country for 14 days by presidential decree, as well as the activities of the Udelar and public shows.

1. Care


I’m not a Nurse, but working at Nursing Faculty I’m surrounded by them. And nurses know about care. And anticipation. Maybe that’s the reason why we had a Contingency Educational Plan by March 13, based on UNESCO’s recommendations, even before the Udelar responded to the Health Crisis with one of its own.

On March 16, the Udelar Academic Technical Support Department published the Online Education Contingency Plan. The Plan noted that maintaining educational activities in alternative modalities would be a way of generating actions that provide information to students and general population, occupy their time effectively, and generate activities that minimise the sense of isolation or inactivity. Framed by the health emergency, and based on the institutional conditions reached, an approach focused on CARE of the entire university community and its resources was proposed, and called Online Teaching and Learning in Emergency Conditions. The plan includes 4 dimensions: (1) Online Teaching and Learning in emergency conditions; (2) Redesign of online teaching and learning; (3) Adaptation of digital systems to the increase in demand; 4) Communication strategy. In addition, the Academic Unit of the Education ProRectorate, developed a guide focused on curriculum development and evaluation that intended to mitigate, as much as possible, a generalised curriculum backwardness that might compromise the educational trajectories of most of the students and devise alternative solutions to student’s participation (Bozkurt, et al, 2020, p. 109). Overall results for the first semester show that almost 85% of the courses were developed in online modality.

2. Tolerance


At this point, it’s relevant to mention that during the last eleven years, we experienced a significant growth and territorial expansion of Udelar’s student population, sustained by a generalised adoption of a blended education model developed through the institutional Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (based on Moodle). The Digital Open Learning Ecosystem of the Virtual Learning Environment Program (ProEVA) combines the LMS with multiple educational platforms and services, developed with free software, supporting communities and individuals in the creation, use and reuse of digital content within the framework of open educational practices. Following with the sense of care for the whole community, is needless to say that the use of free software and open formats, prioritises privacy in management of users’ personal data, avoiding those web tools that require students to create accounts (Bozkurt, et al, op. cit., p. 110).

At Nursing Faculty, the Virtual Learning and Teaching Unit (UnEVA) has been responsible since its creation in 2009, for providing guidance for the integration of Educational Technology (ET) in curricular designs (Rodríguez Enríquez, Czerwonogora & Doninalli, 2018). Also establishes the standards to contribute to quality education design proposals involving the use of ET, fostering deeper accessibility of Higher Education, and reducing the digital and geographic gap. UnEVA has developed a training teacher’s plan in ET, structured in a core of courses at three levels of deepening (Rodríguez Enríquez, Czerwonogora, Verde & Doninalli, 2014). The teacher’s development in ET has allowed that more than half of the courses exhibit a blended learning model, followed by an extended learning one (52% and 45% respectively, Rodríguez Enríquez, et al, op. cit). However, the scenario is very different when you must shift strictly to online learning (full online courses are just a few: 3%). We know that well-planned online learning experiences are meaningfully different from courses offered online in response to a crisis or disaster.

And here’s when tolerance (and flexibility!) came to play. We needed to manage educators’ expectations about customising their existing courses to fit the new demands and help them in this task, balancing their different levels of expertise on designing online courses. We organised a network of digital technologies benchmark teachers, selected in every Faculty department to work with UnEVA and help instructors with syllabus/courses adaptation. Besides signaling the differences between online learning and emergency remote teaching, UnEVA created Virtual essential tools, an open course for teachers to explain basic Moodle features (that was ready by the end of March), and an open site for tutorials. The course was also offered for the Latin American Association of Nursing Schools and Faculties (ALADEFE, main page).

3. Trust


In this complex scenario, UnEVA’s recommendations align with Udelar’s: it is essential to establish relations of mutual confidence and sustained commitment throughout the educational process in order to achieve the desired results, trying not to adopt a disbelief position a priori and recognizing that we’re facing a new and experimental situation for all. Regarding to learning evaluation process, we’ve been always emphasised on formative assesment applied to digital contexts during our teacher trainings, with a ‘learning by doing’ perspective. However, the implementation of these examinations might have been complicated in massive student contexts, like first year students (i.e. 988 in 2020 generation). For these courses, we planned a strategy based on Moodle quizes, focusing on designing ‘good questions’ both in content and form, having a large pool of questions whenever it was possible, and organising the students in groups with different exam proposals and moments during the day. Questions included were mostly multiple choice, but we also took advantage of the distinct options available on the platform. Trust is mandatory when you are taking examinations through the VLE, and most educators adopted these ideas and proposed a variety of online partial and final examinations. Our first proof was Microbiology (partial exam June 6) and we’ve been working since (final exams last until August 21).

4. Flexibility


Tolerance and flexibility are key conceptions to cope with the crisis in the educational environment. The adequation of the curriculum as well as actions taken to preserve the educational continuity of the students through development of online teaching and assessment, require normative flexibility of study regimes and evaluation; it might need compensatory actions tailored to diverse situations of students’ advancement.
Tolerance and flexibility were present during the semester in my exchanges with students: they also need to know that they’re experiencing mostly ERT; that we educators have also trouble with Internet connections; that not all teachers have the same skills and digital competences.

For those who were and are learning/applying/using new softwares and technologies during these times, I’ve encouraged both students and instructors to try free and open software solutions (here is one of my suggested pages). I know I’m a bit radical about this subject (and I’ve been learning about flexibility myself!) but I think it’s a great opportunity to try and move to the open.

Last but not least

As Castañeda & Selwyn (2018, p. 4) assert, it is important for discussions of ET to extend beyond ‘rational’ aspects of the educational process, and also give full consideration to education as a profoundly emotional and human process. More attention needs to be paid to the interplay between the use of digital technology and people’s emotions, feelings and affect. Furthermore, we need to be aware of digital sovereignty and data privacy issues (among others), framing our teaching within a critical digital pedagogy perspective.

In all our digital (educational) moves, we need to rescue and care for the individual (a body, mind and heart) that habits behind the screen.

PS: These thoughts are an advance of my participation at GO-GN Gasta Session
‘Higher Education during COVID times: clues to handle the crisis’


Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., Lambert, S., Al-Freih, M., Pete, J., Olcott, Jr., D., Rodes, V., Aranciaga, I., Bali, M., Alvarez, A. J., Roberts, J., Pazurek, A., Raffaghelli, J. E., Panagiotou, N., de Coëtlogon, P., Shahadu, S., Brown, M., Asino, T. I., Tumwesige, J., Ramírez Reyes, T., Barrios Ipenza, E., Ossiannilsson, E., Bond, M., Belhamel, K., Irvine, V., Sharma, R. C., Adam, T., Janssen, B., Sklyarova, T., Olcott, N., Ambrosino, A., Lazou, C., Mocquet, B., Mano, M., & Paskevicius, M. (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1-126.

Castañeda, L., & Selwyn, N. (2018). More than tools? Making sense of the ongoing digitizations of higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 22.

Rodríguez Enríquez, C., Czerwonogora, A. & Doninalli, M. (2018). Modelos de enseñanza con TIC en los cursos de Grado de Facultad de Enfermería. Jornadas de Investigación en Educación Superior, 214-221.

Rodríguez Enríquez, C., Czerwonogora, A., Verde, J & Doninalli, M. 2014. Evaluación formativa y herramientas tecnológicas. Aportes transversales más allá de las aulas. 88 pp. Montevideo.

This is a reproduction of my guest blog post for #altcSummit

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About my #PhD2* (in a nutshell)

The teacher professional learning community as a complex system

The doctoral research proposes a novel transdisciplinary approach that combines the study of an empirical case in the field of professional training of educators with the analytical approach of philosophy of science in a Kuhnian (1962) style, under the paradigm of complexity science. The case was extracted from PRAXIS, an Educational Action Research project developed within academic professional learning communities (PLC) in the context of public higher education in Uruguay. As a strategy towards fostering teaching innovation, PRAXIS Project explored the potential and benefits of academic PLC for the reflection and transformation of teaching practices and the integration of digital technologies in a meaningful way into teaching. The Project approach was based on Open Science and Open Educational Practices as foundational frameworks to face the challenges of critical Educational Action Research (Czerwonogora & Rodés, 2019).

The thesis research wonders if it is possible to consider complexity science as a theoretical framework capable of accounting for the systems it addresses: does it have the capacity to predict possible states or future behaviors of the system? Is it suitable to describe and explain the system? Could it provide guidelines referring to the intervention on the system and its control? To answer these questions the thesis proposes a reflection on complexity science from the philosophy of science perspective, through the case study (Hetherington, 2013) of PRAXIS academic PLC.

The general purpose of the research is to contribute to conceptual richness of complexity science through the lenses of philosophy of science, based on PRAXIS PLC as a case study.

The specific goals are: to investigate the possibilities of application of the enion probability analysis (Strevens, 2003) to analise a social complex system; to examine complex systems features exhibited by the community from the analysis of online written interactions and participant’s perceptions and opinions; and to model the studied PLC through Social Networks Analysis (Newman, 2018).

It is expected to contribute to complexity science knowledge through reflection and epistemological analysis on the dynamics observed in the PLC as a case study and to understand social complex systems through the characterization of their variables and properties in the case study.


Czerwonogora, A., & Rodés, V. (2019). PRAXIS: Open Educational Practices and Open Science to face the challenges of critical Educational Action Research. Open Praxis, 11(4), 381-396.

Davis, B. y Sumara, D. (2006). Complexity and Education. Inquiries into Learning, Teaching, and Research. New York: Routledge.

Hetherington, L. (2013). Complexity Thinking and Methodology: The Potential of ‘Complex Case Study’ for Educational Research. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, 10 (1/2), 71-85.

Khun, T. S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The University of Chicago.

Newman, M. (2018). Networks, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press.

Strevens, M. (2003). Bigger than Chaos. Understanding Complexity through Probability. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

*It’s my second PhD: I already got a PhD on Natural Sciences (Palaeontology)

The first inspirational book of my PhD2 has just arrived!
Inspirational book for my #PhD2

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Educación abierta #openeducation

(traducción en proceso…)

Una definición de wikipedia como punto de partida:
Educación abierta es un término que se utiliza para describir prácticas institucionales e iniciativas programáticas que amplían el acceso  al aprendizaje y la capacitación tradicionalmente ofrecidos por los sistemas de educación formal.

The qualifier “open” of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness in or “opening up” education is the development and adoption of open educational resources.

Institutional practices that seek to eliminate barriers to entry, for example, would not have academic admission requirements. Such universities include The Open University in Britain and Athabasca University in Canada.


Open education and flexible learning - Graphic illustration.jpg
By Gavin Blake,, Copyrighted free use,


What is Open Education?

Open education encompasses resources, tools and practices that employ a framework of open sharing to improve educational access and effectiveness worldwide.

Open Education combines the traditions of knowledge sharing and creation with 21st century technology to create a vast pool of openly shared educational resources, while harnessing today’s collaborative spirit to develop educational approaches that are more responsive to learner’s needs.

The idea of free and open sharing in education is not new.  In fact, sharing is probably the most basic characteristic of education: education is sharing knowledge, insights and information with others, upon which new knowledge, skills, ideas and understanding can be built.  Open Education seeks to scale educational opportunities by taking advantage of the power of the internet, allowing rapid and essentially free dissemination, and enabling people around the world to access knowledge, connect and collaborate. Open is key; open allows not just access, but the ability to modify and use materials, information and networks so education can be personalized to individual users or woven together in new ways for large and diverse audiences.

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refining your research topic – starting the phd

Refinando el tópico de la investigación: empezando el doctorado


Where do research topics come from?

The research topic you have at the start of your PhD may come from work you did in your Masters. It may come from a professional or policy context, perhaps your own professional work situation, or something you’ve read about in the media. Or it might come from the scholarly reading that you’ve done.


People generally start their PhD with an idea of what they want to research. They’ve had to put in a proposal as part of the entry process.

But this initial idea is not fixed. It might change. Yes really. Your first idea may not be what you end up researching. Your primary task in the first few months of PhD candidacy is to revisit and refine your initial topic so that it becomes a research-able project. A researchable project that is focused on the potential contribution you will make by…

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starting the PhD – digging in to the reading

Cuando se está por empezar una gran empresa…


Most people begin their PhDs by reading. That’s because planned research needs to build on what’s already out there, using what’s been done in order to spell out the expected contribution to knowledge.

There are various ways to start getting on top of this necessary reading. One strategy is to get a sense of what’s been done in the field by using a pre-existing handbook or introductory guide. Another approach is to do a scoping exercise. A further option is to establish a set of questions that can be asked about your topic; this provides a list of areas in which you need to read. A fourth option is to carve out a small and obvious area and dig in.

Digging in means reading for what a small set of texts say just about your overall topic.  But digging in also means reading to find out what the texts…

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Over-proved, but fantastic flavor: The Great British Baking Show as a model for writing reviews

Aplicable a las revisiones y evaluaciones en general: la importancia de que sean constructivas y tengan “valor” para quien las recibe.

The Contemplative Mammoth

I’ve recently started watching The Great British Baking Show*. I’m a bit late to the game, because, despite calling myself a foodie, I am not a fan of cooking shows. The American ones, at least, are so cutthroat, competitive, and nasty that I find them stressful. The trash-talking, sabotage, and antagonism are not fun for me, especially when I’m looking for a way to wind down after a long day in the lab.

Friends in the know assured me that the Great British Baking Show was different, however, and I’m glad I listened. It is, in a word, delightful. Yes, it’s an elimination competition, and yes, the challenges are tough and there are nail-biting moments and heartbreak, but it’s a really joyful show. There is so much to recommend it, from the diverse personalities of the bakers (from teenagers to immigrants to grandmothers to carpenters) to just how informative it is…

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¿Por qué estoy aquí? #escenariostec

Culminando la última semana del MOOC Escenarios educativos con tecnología, que ha motivado las últimas entradas del blog, me propongo en ésta cerrar mi participación en el curso. Para eso, quisiera responder, al menos en parte, la pregunta sugerida en las actividades de esta semana referida a las razones o motivaciones para participar en este curso. Pero hablemos de algunas cuestiones relacionadas previamente.

Un poco de historia

Los cursos masivos y abiertos en línea o MOOC deben su nombre a Dave Cormier. Entran a la escena educativa en el 2008 de la mano de George Siemens y Stephen Downes, como resultado de las ideas conectivistas. El curso que ambos dirigieron en el 2008 (Conectivismo y conocimiento conectivo, CCK08, con 2300 participantes), fue el primero en incorporar aprendizaje abierto utilizando contenidos distribuidos que los participantes podían agregar y modificar, generando sus propios recorridos , convirtiéndose en el primer MOOC. Subyace la perspectiva del aprendizaje conectado, a lo largo de toda la vida (life-long learning), desarrollando habilidades propias del mundo digital.

Como nos explica Dave Cormier en este video, el contrato educativo que se establece en un MOOC no explicita que hay algo particular que el participante deba saber en un campo específico. Los elementos incluidos en la agenda son puntos de partida para el conocimiento y el curso opera como un catalizador del mismo. Los resultados del aprendizaje pueden ser tan diferentes como entradas de blogs, creaciones colaborativas, e incluso artículos científicos. El conocimiento en el MOOC es emergente, proviene de las interacciones entre los facilitadores y participantes con los materiales propuestos. En ese sentido, el participante, más allá de los conocimientos, se llevará del MOOC una red de conexiones de personas e ideas.

El año del MOOC


Indescriptibles… ¡Indestructibles! ¡Nada los puede parar!

El año 2012 terminó con grandes titulares sobre el tema, un debate instalado sobre la mesa y posiciones enfrentadas entre dos modelos de MOOC. Siemens se encargó de aclarar las diferencias entre los MOOC conectivistas y “los otros” y Downes los nombró cMOOC y xMOOC. Básicamente,  los primeros se basan en las ideas conectivistas que señalaba más arriba, enfatizando en el aprendizaje generado en la red y sus relaciones. Los segundos promueven un enfoque transmisivo, centrado en el contenido, con recursos sobre todo audiovisuales, como grabaciones de clasesdisponibles para los participantes y actividades de autoaprendizaje de tipo automatizado.

Los xMOOC, centralizados en plataformas específicas tienen acceso a una gran masa de datos de los participantes, apoyados en sistemas inteligentes y análisis estadísticos que permiten recoger la información de las actividades y decisiones que éstos toman en el curso. Detrás están los intereses de las grandes compañías y los modelos de mercado, interesadas en “calcular” el itinerario formativo de los participantes a partir de los resultados de sus actividades en la plataforma. Esta metodología sugiere una vuelta al modelo conductista, basado en la premisa del estudiante pasivo en la toma de decisiones para su aprendizaje (Calderón Amador et al 2013).

Esta presentación de Jordi Adell nos ofrece algunos aspectos generales y una reseña sobre el ascenso y “caída” de los MOOC.

Volviendo al principio, para responder la pregunta inicial

Conocí este modelo de cursos en en 2011 y seguí en 2012 el debate sobre el tema, tomando partido por el grupo conectivista. Por lo expuesto anteriormente no quería participar en los cursos ofrecidos por las grandes universidades bajo el modelo xMOOC.  Pero tampoco había tenido la oportunidad de experimentar por mí misma “el buen modelo”. Así es que llego a este curso, con la expectativa de probar por mí misma la experiencia de un MOOC conectivista, generado en una plataforma específica pensada para “dar visibilidad a lo importante”, y liderado por un equipo docente del que tengo excelentes referencias (algunas de las cuales ya formaban parte de mi red personal de conexiones).

La experiencia ha sido muy positiva, y algunos ejemplos de la potencia del trabajo colaborativo pueden verse  a continuación.

Ejemplos de Productos colaborativos/individuales del MOOC

Semana 1Frases que nos inspiran, resuenan e invitan a soñar…

Semana 2 Creación colaborativa de imágenes y frases a partir de la consigna de buscar una imagen conceptual que represente el vínculo entre la cultura digital, la educación y el rol docente.

La comunidad teje su red.

Semana 3Experiencia de edición en Wikipedia

Semana 4: Recuperando las huellas del camino transitado con algunos ejemplos de lo que expresan los compañeros en sus espacios personales de reflexión (esta misma entrada es un ejemplo también)

Carolina : Las creaciones colaborativas, por más simples que nos parezcan -la simpleza puede ser sabiduría y belleza-  reconstruyen ese espíritu optimista que es posible circular en redes y en redes de redes.

Nancy: Con lo que me quedo es con la idea de comunidad, de flujo que generan los entornos tecnológicos a la hora de pensar cómo, en educación, podemos crear las cosas en comunidad y compartirlas libremente.

Cinthia: Destaco y valoro el trabajo colaborativo que emprendimos ya que, entre varias voces, pudimos pensar y re-pensar nuestras propias prácticas. Nos llevamos un poco de cada uno y de todos, al mismo tiempo.

Walter: Aunque la tecnología avance, la acción educativa es esencial e irreemplazable. Es por eso que comprendo debemos trabajar en diseñar el futuro de la enseñanza,  porque seremos parte de ese futuro.

Para terminar, quisiera pensar que estos caminos son solamente el principio, las instancias de interacción pautadas y específicas del curso se terminan, pero la red está ahí. Cuestión de seguirla tejiendo…


La comunidad teje su red

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¡Sí, estamos abiertos! #escenariostec

En esta entrada les propongo hacer una breve reseña del movimiento abierto, a través de tres de sus exponentes, quienes desde diferentes perspectivas considero que han resultado pilares fundamentales para su desarrollo.

Ye, we're open!

Yes, we’re open!

Richard Stallman y el software libre #freesoftware

El término open education (educación abierta) refiere a la aplicación de la filosofía y práctica open source (código abierto) en el campo educativo. Este movimiento tuvo su origen en las ideas de Richard Stallman sobre el software libre. La explicación de Stallman sobre la naturaleza de “libre” (“libre como el discurso, no libre como la barra”)  han constituido una gran influencia sobre las definiciones de abierto (como accesible de ser re-utilizado y re-mezclado) en el sentido en que se utilizan estos términos para el código abierto y las comunidades de educación abierta.

Algunos puntos clave: las cuatro libertades

El software libre se centra en la libertad, no en el precio. Los usuarios son libres de ejecutar, copiar, distribuir, estudiar, modificar y mejorar el software libre. Vemos entonces que “software libre” es un asunto de libertad, no relativo al precio.

Existen cuatro libertades esenciales del software libre:

  • La libertad de ejecutar el programa como se desea, con cualquier propósito (libertad 0).
  • La libertad de estudiar cómo funciona el programa, y cambiarlo para que haga lo que usted quiera (libertad 1). El acceso al código fuente es una condición necesaria para ello.
  • La libertad de redistribuir copias para ayudar a su prójimo (libertad 2).
  • La libertad de distribuir copias de sus versiones modificadas a terceros (libertad 3). Esto le permite ofrecer a toda la comunidad la oportunidad de beneficiarse de las modificaciones. El acceso al código fuente es una condición necesaria para ello.

Promovemos estas libertades porque todos merecen tenerlas. Con estas libertades, los usuarios (tanto individualmente como en forma colectiva) controlan el programa y lo que este hace. Cuando los usuarios no controlan el programa, decimos que dicho programa «no es libre», o que es «privativo». Un programa que no es libre controla a los usuarios, y el programador controla el programa, con lo cual el programa resulta ser un instrumento de poder injusto.

David Wiley y el contenido abierto #opencontent

Inspirado en las ideas del código abierto y el software libre, la idea de “open content” (contenido abierto) pretende aplicar los principios de apertura al trabajo creativo incluyendo escritura, imágenes, sonido y videos. El término fue acuñado por David Wiley en 1998, quien se ha interesado en cómo el contenido abierto puede reducir los costos y aumentar la calidad en la educación.

El núcleo central del contenido abierto describe el trabajo con derecho de autor que está licenciado de forma de proveer a los usuarios con permiso libre y perpetuo de involucrarse en las actividades 5R que describimos a continuación.

Algunos puntos clave: las 5Rs

  • Retener – derecho de hacer, poseer y controlar copias del contenido (v.g., descargar, almacenar, poseer, distribuir)
  • Reusar – derecho a utilizar el contenido de múltiples formas (v.g., en una clase, en un grupo de estudio, en una página web, en un video)
  • Revisar – derecho de adaptar, ajustar, modificar o alterar el contenido en sí mismo (v.g., traducir el contenido a otro idioma)
  • Remixar – derecho a combinar el contenido original o revisado con otro contenido abierto para crear algo nuevo (v.g., incorporar el contenido en un mashup)
  • Redistribuir – derecho a compartir copias del contenido original, tus revisiones o tus remixes con otros (v.g., darle una copia del contenido a un amigo)

Aaron Swartz

Este inspirador joven hijo de internet y su cultura, ha tenido una enorme influencia en el desarrollo del movimiento abierto. Lamentablemente, se quitó la vida a los 26 años, el pasado 12 de enero del 2013, cuando escuché hablar de él por primera vez.

Como señalaba Lawrence Lessig en su obituario, Aaron fue uno de los primeros arquitectos de Creative Commons. Siendo un adolescente, ayudó a diseñar el código de las licencias y a construir el movimiento en sí. Pero antes de eso, fue coautor de RSS (Really Simple Syndication, un formato XML que se utiliza para sindicar o compartir contenido en la web). Después de Creative Commons, fue co-fundador de Reddit, liberando toneladas de datos del gobierno; ayudó a desarrollar una biblioteca pública gratuita (, y realizó un enorme trabajo para reformar y mejorar el sistema político. Su última organización,, fue crucial en el bloqueo de la ley SOPA/PIPA en el 2012.

Un resumen de su vida y la importancia de su contribución puede verse en la película “El hijo de Internet: la historia de Aaron Swartz”

Para terminar, dejo este fragmento final (si me disculpan, en el inglés original, para mantener la fuerza del texto, con énfasis agregado por mí) del GuerrillaOpenAccessManifesto, escrito por Aaron, no sin antes recomendarles la lectura de los muchos escritos de su sitio personal.

We need to take information, wherever it is stored, make our copies and share them with 
the world. We need to take stuff that's out of copyright and add it to the archive. We need 
to buy secret databases and put them on the Web. We need to download scientific 
journals and upload them to file sharing networks. We need to fight for Guerilla Open 

With enough of us, around the world, we'll not just send a strong message opposing the 
privatization of knowledge — we'll make it a thing of the past. Will you join us? 

Aaron Swartz 

July 2008, Eremo, Italy